Responding to “Hoteps”: Three Points on “Islamic” Slavery

by Nathaniel Mathews

When I was an undergrad at Howard in the mid-2000s, “hotep” was basically a “conscious” way to greet people; it signified that one had done some reading and research into Ancient Kemet. Over a decade later, the term ‘hotep’ has become a term of opprobrium, indicating someone who is basically an ignorant and unapologetic misogynist.

I use the term “hotep” here to describe a specific person who has developed an opposition to Islam from studying foundational Afrocentric texts, such as Chancellor Williams’ The Destruction of Black Civilization. Their argument is as follows: Islam is not indigenous to Africa. Rather it was brought by Arabs (sometimes identified as Semitic, sometimes as Caucasian) who invaded Africa, enslaving and raping their way across the continent. Their pillaging led to hundreds of millions of Africans being displaced. Islam is nothing but Arab nationalism, an unoriginal religion designed to hide Arab racial interests as they stole African land and riches. Black Muslims, they argue, betray African interests by following this ‘Arab’ religion.

In my view, Muslims should respond to these accusations as follows:

  • The first important point is that Islam is not a white, Arab religion, foreign to Africa. The assumption that Islam is Arab colonialism is foundational to a great number of Afrocentric foundationalist critiques of Islam, ranging from Chancellor Williams to Molefi Asante and Wole Soyinka. But these critiques rest on the idea that Arabs are not indigenous to Africa. And beneath the comparison then, is an analogy that rests more on a misguided comparison of Arab migrations into Africa to European colonial migrations post 1492 than on conclusive evidence that this earlier Arab expansion also resulted in a massive displacement of Africans. As scholar Hisham Aidi points out, Cheikh Anta Diop, a scholar often quoted by contemporary Afrocentrists, himself refuted the idea of an Arab invasion in his classic work Precolonial Black Africa. And Diop himself was an African Muslim from Senegal. Afrocentrists may have legitimate philosophical critiques of Islam, and certainly legitimate critiques of the failings of Muslims, but equating Islam with Arab colonialism is inaccurate.
  • The second and related point is that the beginning of slavery in Africa does not date from the coming of Islam into Africa. Slavery was an ancient practice in any number of centralized and decentralized societies across the African continent. Slaves were more often than not criminals or war captives, because in the absence of prisons, forms of servility and human bondage were the only available punishment (along with death or exile) for serious crimes. These forms of slavery were extremely variable, often gendered and cannot be simplistically categorized into ‘African slavery’ versus ‘Islamic slavery’.     
  • The third important point is that Afrocentrists pointing to the evils of the ‘Arab’ slave trade often rely uncritically on eighteenth and nineteenth century European travellers in East Africa as their primary source material. These accounts contain much of value, but must be read critically for their clear bias against Islam and Arabs and contextually as evidence of the growing nexus between abolition and colonialism. Their shocking accounts of the brutality of the slave trade were often designed specifically to demonize ‘Arab’ traders (who were oftentimes not even Arab), outrage a European public and advocate for European colonial intervention.

I do not want to be seen as apologizing for Arab slave traders or slave traders of any kind. The traffic, past and present, of human beings in bondage was and is unethical, immoral and illegal. But these polemical accounts date from a time when the enslavement of Africans was a global business participated in by many ethnicities, societies, states and private companies, and of which British, French and Dutch colonials were a vital part. The ‘Arab’ slave trade is thus more accurately referred to as the Indian Ocean slave trade. In the nineteenth century, it became global in scope, as part of the global trade in ivory from Africa.

Afrocentrists often quote statistics derived from this aforementioned literature, about the total number of Africans taken over centuries of the ‘Arab’ slave trade. This is an empirically dubious exercise, for there are no accurate records on numbers of enslaved Africans for the early centuries of Islam, and the scattershot eighteenth and nineteenth century estimates of amateur European travelers cannot be reliably taken as a statistical ground from which to derive any reasonable estimate about the past.

In a related article, I also explore the Islamic tradition’s approach to the abolition of slavery from a historical perspective.

11128587_10100802097691680_475105515663466740_nNathaniel Mathews is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Africana Studies at SUNY-Binghamton. He received a B.A. in History from Howard University, an M.A. in Global, International and Comparative History from Georgetown University in 2009, and a Ph.D. in African History from Northwestern University in 2016, focusing on family networks and the Swahili-speaking diaspora in the Indian Ocean. His research is published on his site, Azanian Sea.

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  • I am Black and I am a Muslim. And Islam was certainly not the impetus for “Arabs” engaging in the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, or for their dehumanizing treatment of Black Africans. Rather it was Muslims within Islam and from various regions of the Islamic Empire that brought into the Ummah of Muhammad (PBUH) the idea of Blacks inferiority. It was the same destructive religion of White supremacy that devours this planet today. And worse yet, it was propagated many times by brilliant Islamic scholars, particular Persia, who were mathematicians and scientist and scholars in Islamic studies.
    And as for your point of the existence of slavery in every nation for much of our time on the planet, this is true. But never, ever, did slavery have the meaning or subhuman brutality attached to it as it did when White supremacy made it a matter of color and birth, and it became an international trade of one group of people.
    However, this is an example of the mindset of some of the most revered scholars in Islam that would eventually set the foundation for the reasoning of enslaving Black people from birth to death and making it inherited from mother to child: What the most famous Islamic scholars said about black people

    “Here is what some of the most famous Islamic scholars wrote about sub-Saharan Africans. All of these men are still revered and used for Islamic study to this day.

    “merriment dominates the black man because of his defective brain, whence also the weakness of his intelligence.” – Al-Masudi (896-956), Great geographer who traveled as far as China and Sri Lanka, known as the “Herodotus of the Arabs.”

    “Of the neighbors of the Bujja, Maqdisi had heard that “there is no marriage among them; the child does not know his father, and they eat people — but God knows best. As for the Zanj, they are people of black color, flat noses, kinky hair, and little understanding or intelligence.” – Al-Muqaddasi (945/946-1000). A famous Arab geographer.

    “[Blacks are] people who are by their very nature slaves.” – Ibn Sina AKA Avicenna (980-1037) , referred to as “The Father of Modern Medicine” by Persians. Considered to be one of the top scholars of the Islamic Golden Age.

    Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (1201-1274) , Famous for both Islamic religious and scientific writings. Considered to be the Greatest Persian mathematician and astronomer of all time. First person to translate the all the famous Greek books of mathematics into Arabic.

    “If (all types of men) are taken, from the first, and one placed after another, like the Negro from Zanzibar, in the Southern-most countries, the Negro does not differ from an animal in anything except the fact that his hands have been lifted from the earth -in no other peculiarity or property – except for what God wished. Many have seen that the ape is more capable of being trained than the Negro, and more intelligent.”

    “[The Zanj (African) differ from animals only in that] their two hands are lifted above the ground,… Many have observed that the ape is more teachable and more intelligent than the Zanj.”

    Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406), Andalusian Arab of Tunisian origin. Wrote the Muqaddimah, from which these quotes are taken. Regarded by Arabs & Turks as a founding father of sociology, economics, and historiography. Currently appears on the 10 Dinar bill in Tunisia.

    “Therefore, the Negro nation are, as a rule, submissive to slavery, because [Negroes] have little [that is essentially] human and have attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals, as we have stated.”

    “beyond [known peoples of black West Africa] to the south there is no civilization in the proper sense. There are only humans who are closer to dumb animals than to rational beings. They live in thickets and caves, and eat herbs and unprepared grain. They frequently eat each other. They cannot be considered human beings.”

    However, the teachings of Islam prohibit such things, and racism itself was expressly prohibited by the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) in his last sermon. And in a famous Hadith, Umar ibn Al-Khattab and said, “…Since when did you enslave the people though they were born from their mothers in freedom?”

    • Granted what they wrote was racist (and does not represent Islam at all) and Islam prohibits (does not allow) slavery even the Quran reminds us this as well when Allah says in Surah Balad,

      “If only they had attempted the challenging path ˹of goodness instead˺!, And what will make you realize what ˹attempting˺ the challenging path is?
      It is to free a slave”

      Anyone who thinks or ponders on this can clearly see that the antithesis of the path of goodness or the challenging path would be the path of darkness or evilness which is enslavement, something that Islam is against. The Quran as it is shown multiple times is to bring light where there is darkness

      “By which Allāh guides those who pursue His pleasure to the ways of peace1 and brings them out from darknesses into the light, by His permission, and guides them to a straight path.” (5:16).

      Thus, going into darkness would be antithesis to godliness and to what the Quran has legislated, it would count as a transgression and be ungodly to do so. Also, in a famous Hadith Qudsi Allah has prohibited oppression as well,

      “Allah Almighty said: O My servants, I have forbidden injustice for Myself and I have forbidden it among you, so do not oppress one another. O My servants, all of you are astray except for those I have guided, so seek guidance from Me and I shall guide you. O My servants, all of you are hungry except for those I have fed, so seek food from Me and I shall feed you. O My servants, all of you are naked except for those I have clothed, so seek clothing from Me and I shall clothe you. O My servants, you sin by night and day and I forgive all sins, so seek forgiveness from Me and I shall forgive you. O My servants, you are unable to harm Me and you are unable to bring benefit to Me. O My servants, were the first of you and the last of you, the human of you and the jinn of you, to be as pious as the most pious heart of anyone of you, that would not increase My dominion at all. O My servants, were the first of you and the last of you, the human of you and the jinn of you, to be as wicked as the most wicked heart of anyone of you, that would not decrease My dominion at all. O My servants, were the first of you and the last of you, the human of you and the jinn of you, to rise up in one place and make a request of Me, and were I to give everyone what he requested, that would not diminish what I have any more than a needle would diminish the sea if put into it. O My servants, it is only your deeds that I record and then recompense for you. Let him who finds good praise Allah, and let him who finds something else blame no one but himself.” (this is a very well known Hadith by the way it’s Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 2577)

      Taking this and the Quran verses that tell us to fight against injustice, that prohibit injustice and wrongdoing, why on. earth would anyone think slavery (which Allah has considered wrong and a form of darkness through putting abolishment and emancipation with the path of goodness. Only someone who is morally corrupt (immoral) would read these things and not consider for slavery to be haram. Actually Sheikh KAheld Abou El Fadl has addressed this in his khutbah and talked about Quran prohibiting slavery take a look,

      Also even the concept of rawhide or worshipping one God goes against slavery. Shirk is not merely worshipping Idols but its being in Ibadan to anyone other than Allah (the one God). Ibadan means worship but its literal meaning means servitude which comes from the word and meaning slav. If we look at this a bit more in depth, since being in Ibadan to anyone other than Allah is shirk and that is something that Allah hates, then the whole institution of slavery itself is a system or being in servitude or being in slavery (the literal meaning of ‘Ibadan) to someone else other than God, which then would mean slavery is haram.

      One of my scholars who has addressed slavery being haram in islam has talked about slavery being abolished gradually and progressively, not abruptly because of the social contexts that arrived at this time period. So, manumitting or freeing leaves when you commit a sin, or hurt them, or break fast during ramadan, treating them as your brothers, removing the slave master label and instead using boss or patron are all ways to progressively remove slavery. Even the limitation of slavery to just being in war captors is a way in that social context of removing slav era progressively. Since the Quran is a book of ethics and morality, we too if we are to be viceroys of God on earth, we are to continue to moral project of the Quran on earth and expand on it. Anyone who can see and clearly see that the goal is to abolish slavery completely but progressively. Perhaps it is to keep social stability but it could also be a way for the protection of the most vulnerable in society as well. As Muslims we have to take people out of their oppression and hardship therefore, Islam expanding the humanity to people whose humanity have been stripped (i.e. slaves) is also a form of gradually removing slavery. Extend humanity to them, limit where slaves come from, great them as how you would treat your brothers and sisters, this removes the property aspect of slavery and frees them from chattel, see how it is done progressively? You feed clothe and shelter them as you feed clothe shelter yourself. All of this was to progressively remove the institution of slavery in steps. Similarly to how alcohol has been prohibited in Islam not at one but in steps. Actually, many things which were institutional social ills, were not prohibited all at once but it was gradually and Allah knows best. I believe Islam, the true authentic sunnah, and above all the Quran and Allah SWT have prohibited slavery. It’s quite clear when you actually see it and ask Allah for help and guidance. Sheikh Khaled Abou El Fadl and Mufti Abu Lath and so has Ustadh Mustafa Okan Briggs have all talked about this. (actually take a look at this podcast with Mustafa Okan Briggs and Momodou Daal where they address the misconceptions of Islam and debunk the myth of Islma being anti black (spoiler, Islam is NOT anti-black) it’s on the Malcolm X. Here you go,

      just on a side note to address what the other people wrote, Ibn Khaldun wrote racist stuff many people, it was not exclusively to “black” people (also it is not good to take stuff from secondary sources about anyone really it’s always best to get the primary texts). People who tend to focus on the insulting and racist stuff he wrote on “black” people tend ignore the stuff he wrote about Arabs and Slavic people. Also Negroes was never used in any of the original texts, these are all translations (from europeans) from old arabic. Not condoning it, but many people back then wrote racist stuff about every group they came across not just black people alone.

  • While you cite Cheikh Anta Diop from his book entitled, “Pre-Colonial Black Africa”, you failed to cite and/or quote him from his book entitled, “The African Origin Of Civilization: Myth Or Reality”. Here is some of what he said.
    “This empire was destroyed in the eighteenth century B.C. by an invasion of coarse, white Jectanide tribes, who apparently came to settle there among the Blacks …..These facts, on which even Arab authors agree, prove, as will shortly become more evident, that the Arab race cannot be conceived as anything but a mixture of Blacks and Whites, a process continuing even today. These same facts also prove that traits common to Black culture and Semitic culture have been borrowed from Blacks. The reverse is historically false”…In the eighth century B.C., the Jectanides, having become strong enough, seized power in the exact same manner——–and during the exact same period—–as the Assyrians won control over the Babylonians (also Kushites)…”
    Diop further said in his book pp127-128, “Consequently, it is important to change our notions about the Semite. Whether in Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, or Arabia, the Semite, in-so far as he is discernible objectively, appears as a product of a Negro-White mixture. It is possible that Whites who came to crossbreed with Negroes in that area of Western Asia were distinguished by certain ethnic features, such as the Hittite nose. The mixed character of the Semitic languages could be explained the same way. Their roots are common to Arabic, Hebrew, Syriac and Germanic tongues.”
    He also said,
    “For us the return to Egypt in every domain is the necessary condition to reconcile African Civilization with History, to build a body of modern human sciences and be able to renew African Culture…Egypt will play the same role in the rethinking and renewing of African Culture that ancient Greece and Rome plays in the Culture of the West”–Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop.
    In addition, there countless documented evidence proving that Arabs invaded North Afrika. The fact that they refer to themselves as Arabs should be very telling indeed. The name Arab is tied to a land mass. So, here is the essential question. If there was no land mass known as Arabia before the common era and there wasn’t, how can the original people of that land mass be known as Arabs before the common era? You see, our primary disagreement of who the original Arabs are is based on your incorrect use of terminology and your ignorance of the correct Historical timeline. And the correct terminology and the correct timeline are vitally important in any discussion on History. You can’t properly discuss History without discussing timeline, nor using the correct terminology, where available. If you are trying to say the original Arabs were Black. I must correct you. The original Arabs were not originally Black. Yes, the original people of that land mass were Black. However, they were known as Sabaeans. And their land was known as Saba. They weren’t Arabs, because, at that time, there was no land mass known as Arabia. So, at that time, there were no people who could have been known as Arabs, nor could there have been any language called Arabic. So, I am saying that such a claim is impossible, because that land mass wasn’t known as Arabia until the common era. The Blacks of that region had been mixing with Caucasians since as early as the 18th Century B.C.E. In addition, the religion of Islam is not the original religion of the Black man because Islam is not original. Islam is a confluence of ideas that converged on that area. It is a mixture of the ancient Egyptian Religion of Ma’at, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Christianity. When I hear Muslims say Islam has always existed, that cannot be proven by them, nor anyone else. As I’ve said many times, no matter the topic, you must have the correct timeline when discussing History. You cannot properly discuss History without one. The Prophet Muhammad Ibn Abdullah was born in 570 A.C.E. (A.D.). The term Islam did not exist before 610 A.C.E., when the prophet Muhammad Ibn Abdullah, according to all Islamic scholars say he received his first ayats at the time he reached the age of Wisdom (40 years of age). That would be 610 A.C.E. The Religion of Islam wasn’t finalized until the prophet Muhammad Ibn Abdullah received the final Sur’a and ayat (verse) of the Qur’an in 23 years later, in 633 A.C.E., which was Sur’a Maidah (5th Chapter, 3rd verse), which says in part,”…This day have I perfected for you your religion and given you Islam as a way of life”. The Prophet Muhammad Ibn Abdullah dies 89 days later, in 633 A.C.E. ( A.D.) There was no land mass known or referred to as Arabia back during the 18th Century B.C.E.
    Therefore, I reiterate, there is no such thing as the original Arabs being Black people. The Arabs are Semites.

    A Semite does not describe a Race of people. The term describes various people who speak a Semitic (mixed Afro-Asiatic) language. The term Semite derives from the term Semi, which means part of or half.
    a member of any of the peoples who speak or spoke a Semitic language, including in particular the Jews and Arabs.

    relating to or denoting a family of languages that includes Amharic, Arabic, Aramaic, Gheez, Hebrew, Somali, and certain ancient languages such as Phoenician and Akkadian, constituting the main subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic family.
    Relating to the people who speak the Semitic languages.

    Powered by Oxford Dictionaries · © Oxford University Press

  • This is yellow journalism at its finest. The Atlantic Slave Trade can be compared to none. For the amount of deaths alone in the middle passage, to the systems of exploitation that still are in effect today. How dare you downplay the African Holocaust!

  • In addition, I would add that this article is blatantly (1) Disrespectful to our indigenous Afrikan Ancestral, Cultural, and Spiritual legacy and to all sane, rational Afrikan people, worldwide. And by referring to those of us who thru our study of indigenous and ancient Afrikan History as “Hoteps”, you have proven yourself to be an apologist to the followers of Islam.
    (2) Is designed to protect itself against Religious annihilation from the facts and the evidence of History.

  • Hotep is an ancient word of the mdw ntchr that means at peace or at rest. Hotep has various over meaning depending on the determinative behind the inscription. It has never meant anything derogatory but has been recently and ignorantly used to describe black people from a certain demographic. The argument that the religion of Islam is not indigenous to Africa is 100% factual and no one can present a sound argument that refutes this claim. To say that the Arab enslavers were not muslim would not be truthful and would be academically dishonest. Indentured servitude was not new to Africa but chatted slavery was and to try to sync the two as and African practice is also academically dishonest. The Arab slave trade employed Arabs and Europeans but it was and Islamic Arab institution and pointing out that other types of people participated does not erase that fact. Regardless of the number of slaves during this 1400 year long atrocity we as African people have no use for a people or religion that enslaved us. I think that would be a logical deduction from anyone that read any of the wicked accounts from that era.

  • This essay is quite vague and fails to point to any grounded evidence to validate its claims. Arabs are not Africans and in these grounds, Islam is a foreign religion. No dates no sources no historical timeline, of origins of peoples.

  • Trash article from another liar holding the agenda to hide the truth from black people. Fact is, African servitude and white chattel slavery are two entirely different things. To compare them is racist in itself. whites colonized the earth including white Muslims so the “hoteps” are actually right.

  • I read all the comments and instead of looking in ones house,people are here and blaming Arabs and Muslims of whom they themselves are victims,even crusader raped and enslaved many Muslims.Islam is not an Arab religion,but these people before targeting the author,must read about Anthony Johnson and Ellison Gibson,who are black slave traders,and also about blacks who participated in both Sahara and Atlantic slave trade.Islam is not foreign slave trade,rather earlier sahabah like barakah and Bilal ibn habshi was black Ethiopian.

  • Can the author provide sources for the assertions he makes, and can the commentator who gives quotes made by elite Arab scholars regarding views on Africans explain how these racist ideas were disseminated in the ‘Arab’ world (not just amongst the elites) ?

  • Muammar Gaddafi apologizes at 2nd Arab- African Summit in Sirte, October 10th, 2010: “On behalf of Arabs I would like to condemn & apologize, and express deep sorrow for the Sub-Saharan Slave Trade and the conduct of Arabs. The Arabs treated their African brothers with disgrace, that began with the Arab Slave Trade in the 7th Century, after the Arabs defeated Egypt, and took control of North & East Africa and other areas such as Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast and Nigeria.
    With full control of Africa, Arabs hunted and captured boys and girls (castrated boys 9-12), sold them into slavery in Africa, Indonesia, China, Southwest Asia & India.
    Arabs engaged in human trafficking in the most gruesome, abominable fashion. They engaged in Colonizing & exploiting, which still continues today.”
    (From the first Muslim incursion of 640 AD.)

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